Table of Contents
Anaemia disease, find out about Anaemia disease, causes and factors of Anaemia, symptoms & diagnosis of Anaemia diseases.
About Anaemia disease
Anaemia is a medical condition characterized by an insufficient amount of red blood cells in the body to transport enough oxygen to tissues. A person suffering from anaemia is likely to feel tired frequently. Anaemia is defined as a decline in one or more measurements of red blood cells:
- Haemoglobin concentration (HGB): The concentration of haemoglobin, the primary carrier of oxygen in the blood.
- Hematocrit (HCT): Blood sediment or the percentage of red blood cells in total blood volume.
- Red blood cell count (RBC count): The number of erythrocytes present in a predetermined volume of total blood volume.
The definition of anaemia according to the values of the above tests varies among males and females:
- Males: values less than 13.5 g / dL for haemoglobin concentration and values less than 41 per cent for hematocrit.
- Females: values less than 12 g / dL for haemoglobin concentration and values less than 36 per cent for hematocrit.
Anaemia is one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system.
Different haemoglobin values:
Below we will talk about special groups whose natural haemoglobin values may differ from the rest of humans for genetic, genetic or lifestyle reasons:
- Smokers: Smokers are known to have higher hematocrit values than normal non-smokers. This may disguise and mask the presence of anaemia in those smokers if any because we will not see this in laboratory blood tests.
- Highlanders: People who live above sea level have higher haemoglobin values than those who live close to sea level.
- African Americans have haemoglobin values of 0.5-1.0 g / dL on average than the globally recognized values.
- Chronic disease: Chronic disease may lead to lower haemoglobin values than normal values globally, but these values do not actually indicate anaemia.
- Athletes have natural haemoglobin values that are different from the universally recognized natural values.
There are a few different types of anaemia, each of which has its own cause.
Anaemia can be a temporary or ongoing medical condition and may range from mild to severe. When anyone suspects that they have anaemia, they should go to the doctor, because anaemia can be an early sign of the development of the more severe and serious disease. Treatments for anaemia range from taking food additives to medical treatments. It may be possible to prevent the development of certain types of anaemia by maintaining a balanced, diverse and healthy diet.
Symptoms of Anaemia disease
The onset of symptoms of anaemia in patients depends on the degree of anaemia they suffer in addition to the frequency of development of the disease and the patient’s need for oxygen. Symptoms of anaemia (listed below) usually occur if the disease progresses very quickly. Symptoms of anaemia vary and vary, depending on the cause, which includes:
- Pale skin.
- Rapid and irregular heart palpitations.
- Dancing heartbeat.
- hard breathing.
- Chest aches.
- Changes in cognitive status.
- Chilled hands and feet.
- Myocardial infarction (in rare and severe cases of the disease).
Early-onset anaemia may be very mild and imperceptible, but symptoms worsen as the disease worsens.
Causes and Factors of Anaemia disease?
Blood consists of a fluid called plasma and cells. Types of blood cells There are three different types of blood cells that float inside the plasma:
- Leucocytes: These cells fight infection (Infections).
- Platelet / Thrombocyte: These cells help the blood to clot after injury.
- Erythrocytes: These cells carry oxygen from the lungs, by blood flow, to the brain, other vital organs, and tissues in the body.
The importance of haemoglobin
Red blood cells contain haemoglobin, a red iron-rich protein that gives the blood its usual colour (red). Haemoglobin enables red blood cells to transfer oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and to transfer carbon dioxide back into the lungs so that it can be removed from the body in the exhalation process. Most blood cells, including red blood cells, are constantly produced in the marrow (bone marrow – Bone marrow), a red spongy substance found inside the large bone cavities of the body.
In order to produce haemoglobin and red blood cells, the body needs iron, other minerals, vitamins and proteins that are available in human food. In addition to some hormones, the most important is the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is excreted by the kidneys in order to produce red blood cells. The average age of the red blood cell ranges from 110 to 120. When a person suffers from anaemia, his body does not produce enough red blood cells but wastes or damages them much faster than they can produce new blood cells.
Types of anaemia
Common types of anaemia and their causes include:
Iron deficiency anaemia: This common type of anaemia affects approximately 2-3% of the adult US population. The reason for its occurrence is the lack of iron in the body. Bone marrow needs iron to produce haemoglobin, and if the iron is not enough, the body cannot produce enough haemoglobin for red blood cells.
Vitamin Deficiency Anemia: In addition to iron, the body also needs folic acid and vitamin B12 to produce enough healthy red blood cells. A diet lacking a vital food compound can lead to reduced red blood cell production. There are some people who suffer from the inability of their body to absorb vitamin B-12 effectively.
Anaemia is a symptom of chronic disease: the incidence of many chronic diseases, such as cancer, AIDS (AIDS syndrome – AIDS), gout disease (Gout), Crohn’s disease (Crohn’s disease), and other chronic inflammatory diseases, can affect the production Red blood cells, thus causing chronic anaemia. Kidney failure can also lead to anaemia.
Aplastic anaemia: This type of anaemia is very rare, but it is life-threatening. It occurs as a result of the low ability of the bone marrow to produce the three types of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets). The cause of aplastic anaemia is still unknown in most cases. However, there is a belief that it is related to diseases affecting the functioning of the immune system.
Anaemia caused by bone marrow disease: Many diseases, such as leukaemia, myelodysplasia (dysplasia), are a pre-leukaemia medical condition that can lead to anaemia and affect the bone marrow. The effects of cancerous or semi-cancerous disorders can range from a very mild change in blood cell production to complete cessation of life-threatening production. Other types of cancer attack the blood and bone marrow, such as multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative disorders, and lymphoma.
Hemolysis Anemia: This group of anaemia develops when red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow is able to produce new blood cells.
There are certain blood diseases that can cause extensive damage to red blood cells. Disorders of the immune system can cause the body to produce antibodies to red blood cells, causing them to be destroyed prematurely. Taking certain drugs, such as different types of antibiotics used to treat different types of infections (contaminants), can also cause red blood cell damage.
Sickle cell anaemia: This type of anaemia is sometimes severe, transmitted by heredity, and in most cases affects people of African, Arab or Mediterranean origin. This type of anaemia occurs as a result of an imbalance in haemoglobin that makes red blood cells of exceptional sickle-like shape. This form of red blood cells causes the atrophy of these cells and their premature death, and thus causes a chronic shortage of red blood cells.
Other types of anaemia: There are other additional types of anaemia, more rare types such as Thalassemia, and types caused by defects in haemoglobin. Sometimes, an accurate diagnosis of the cause of anaemia is not possible.
Risk factors for anaemia
Risk factors for anaemia include:
Malnutrition: Every human being, whether young or adult, is often nourished from iron-poor foods and vitamins, especially folic acid, at risk of anaemia. The body needs iron, protein and vitamins to produce enough red blood cells.
Intestinal diseases and disorders: People with diseases or disorders of the intestine that affect the absorption of food compounds in the small intestine, such as Crohn’s disease and celiac disease (Celiac disease), are at risk of anaemia. An operation to remove part of the small intestine, or treat the affected part of the small intestine, in which food compounds are absorbed, can lead to a deficiency in certain food compounds, and then to anaemia.
Menstrual cycle: Women in fertile age are, in general, the most susceptible to iron-deficiency anaemia, compared to men. This is because women lose amounts of blood and, as a result, lose iron too, in their menstrual period.
- Pregnancy: A pregnant woman is very susceptible to iron-deficiency anaemia because her iron stores should support a larger volume of blood than normal and should also be a source of haemoglobin that the fetus needs to grow and develop.
- Chronic diseases and conditions: People with cancer, renal failure, hepatic failure, or any other chronic medical condition may be at risk of developing anaemia called “chronic anaemia” (anaemia as a symptom of chronic disease). ).
- These medical conditions may cause a shortage of red blood cells. Slow but chronic blood loss, caused by a peptic ulcer, or ulcers elsewhere in the body, can lead to depletion of iron stores in the body, causing iron-deficiency anaemia.
- Genetic factors: If a family member has inherited anaemia, such as sickle cell anaemia, this is a risk factor for anaemia, on a genetic basis.