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Aplastic anaemia Disease, find out about Aplastic anaemia Diseases, causes and factors of Aplastic anaemia illness, symptoms & diagnosis of Aplastic anaemia Diseases.
About Aplastic anaemia disease
Aplastic anaemia is a disease whose main advantage is damage to the system responsible for the formation of the three blood compounds (the hematopoietic system): the red strain – from which red blood cells develop haemoglobin, the white pressure – the formation of blood cells. White and platelet strain – responsible for blood clotting. As a result of this imbalance, there is a significant reduction in the number of cells from the three strains in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood.
Aplastic anaemia is one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system.
A healthy environment in which blood compounds evolve is called a microenvironment. There are interrelationships between the stem cells (Stem cells), which are the source of the development of the components of the blood system, and their natural environment. This relationship called the “seed and soil” relationship. The mechanism that leads to aplastic anaemia includes an internal imbalance in stem cells that leads to their failure to develop, due to factors in the microenvironment such as attack by the immune system, or a lack of growth factors that stimulate the development of blood cells. The disease may appear following born or acquired causes.
The prevalence of the disease in the United States, between 0.5 – 1 per 1,000,000, the most significant proportion is between the ages of 15-30 and over the age of 60. There is no difference in the prevalence of the disease among men and women. Non-elastoplastic anaemia syndrome born:
- Fanconi syndrome – a genetic defect that appears as congenital skeletal disabilities and higher risk (increased risk/tendency) of cancer.
- Shwachman – Diamond syndrome – accompanied by pancreatic failure and malabsorption syndrome.
- Congenital dyskeratosis (Dyskeratosis congenital) – except in rare cases, the disease appears only in males and accompanied by skin problems.
Symptoms of Aplastic anaemia Disease
Symptoms are caused by progressive failure of the bone marrow, including: pallor of the skin, a sense of weakness and fatigue due to anemia (low hemoglobin level), signs of bleeding due to low platelet level (Thrombocytopenia), and secondary infections following a low level of white blood cells (lack of Neutropenia).
Causes and factors of Aplastic anaemia Diseases
Causes of aplastic anaemia:
- Medications – Certain medications can lead to dose-related anaemia, such as chemotherapy. Other medications can lead to this disease due to anaphylaxis, such as some types of antibiotics (Antibiotics), anti-inflammatory drugs or ticlopidine to dilute (to liquefy) the blood.
- Radiotherapy, especially in high-concentration doses or constant exposure.
- Exposure to certain chemicals such as benzene.
- Infection with certain viruses, especially Jaundice, which causes liver disease, EBV, Vanguard and HIV.
- Pregnancy, in rare cases, can lead to aplastic anemia.
- Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, may sometimes contribute to the development of aplastic anaemia.
Complications of Aplastic anaemia Disease
Diagnosis of Aplastic anaemia illness
The diagnosis based on a sampling of peripheral blood, which enables us to see low levels of the three blood strains. And also by taking a bone marrow biopsy in which we see a decrease in all components of the blood system, and the high proportion of fat cells. There are indications for the diagnosis of severe aplastic anaemia, depending on the image we see in the peripheral blood and bone marrow sample, and when the results indicate a sharp decrease in 3 blood groups.
Prevention of Aplastic anaemia disease
Treatment of Aplastic anaemia infirmity
Treatment of anaemia includes aplastic anaemia, supportive therapy and targeted therapy. The majority of patients receiving supportive treatment, without treating the disease itself, die within a year or two. Favourable treatment includes blood compounds and long-term antibiotic treatment. Targeted therapy consists of a bone marrow transplant from a donor (preferably a brother or sister, but also from a stranger), or immunosuppressive therapy and growth factors.
Bone marrow transplantation is effective in 60% -90% of patients. The success of the treatment depends on the age of the patient. The availability of the donor and the suitability of the donor to the recipient. The main complications that can result from this treatment are the failure to receive implantation and graft versus host disease, a serious disease caused by attacking the graft of the receiving patient’s organs.
If the possibility of a transplant from a donor is not available, the treatment is with immunosuppressive drugs. This choice depends on the direct relationship between the overactive immune system and the development of the disease. The medications used to suppress the immune system are anti-thymic globulin (ATG – Anti thymocyte globulin), cyclosporine and corticosteroids (corticosteroids). The response rate (partial and total) is 70% -80%, but only between a quarter and a third of patients respond adequately to treatment.