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Atrial fibrillation disease, find out about Atrial fibrillation disease, causes and factors of Atrial fibrillation, symptoms & diagnosis of Atrial fibrillation.
About Atrial fibrillation disease
Atrial fibrillation is usually accompanied by an accelerated and irregular heartbeat, resulting in decreased ability to supply blood to the body. During atrial fibrillation, the ears contract irregularly and are inconsistent with the ventricles; this condition usually accompanied by a feeling of intense chest pulses, shortness of breath and general weakness in the body. Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system.
Atrial fibrillation can be a temporary and transient condition and can become chronic; although not a life-threatening condition, we are talking about a serious condition, often requiring urgent treatment, preventing complications.
Symptoms of Atrial fibrillation
When the atrial fibrillation occurs, the heart does not contract as best as possible, making the inability of the heart to cope with changing situations. For healthy people who do not suffer from any other diseases or heart disorders, atrial fibrillation is detected by chance, during a regular and periodic examination, although the person does not experience any symptoms or limitations. Another section of patients may complain about one of the following symptoms:
- Sharp blows to the chest (or professional language “palpitations”). A person feels a heartbeat and is often aware that his heartbeats are fast and irregular.
- Low blood pressure.
- Mess up and flounder (confusion).
- Shortness of breath.
- Chest pain.
Fibrillation (after which symptoms appear) can occur once every few minutes or every few hours, after which it disappears. This situation is called intermittent atrial fibrillation (Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation). When talking about a persistent condition, the case is called chronic atrial fibrillation.
Causes and Factors of Atrial fibrillation disease
The heart consists of four cavities: ears, and under the ventricles. In the right atrium is the human pacemaker (SA node), whose function is to create an electrical stimulus that constricts myocardial fibres. This electrical stimulus causes the ears to contract, from which they travel through a unique carrier fibre (AV node) to the ventricles. When the atrial fibrillation occurs, the ears receive a fast, irregular electrical stimulus that causes them to contract very quickly.
Fortunately, not all electrical charges produced by the atria to the ventricles are transmitted, so that the frequency of the ventricles contract between 100-175 beats per minute, which is higher than the sound frequency of 60 to 100 beats per minute. Although this pace is faster than usual, heart contractions during it remain beneficial, and blood pumped from the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body.
The most common cause of atrial fibrillation is a change in the structure of the heart, whether it is acquired or congenital, in addition to:
- Increased blood pressure.
- Heart Attack.
- You have damaged heart valves.
- Imbalance in metabolism as a result of thyroid disorder or for any other reason.
- Exposure to stimulants such as various drugs, drugs, coffee, smoking and alcohol.
- Damage to the normal pacemaker itself.
- Sick sinus node syndrome.
- Emphysema and other pulmonary diseases.
- Previous heart operations.
- Viral infections.
- Severe body stress, such as pneumonia or significant surgical procedures.
- Sleep apnea.
Risk factors for atrial fibrillation also include:
- Generation: As we get older, the higher the risk of atrial palpitations.
- Heart disease: Previous heart disease, including valvular diseases, heart surgeries, and heart attacks all increase the risk of atrial fibrillation.
- High blood pressure: High blood pressure, especially when not treated with drugs and lifestyle changes, increases the risk of fibrillation.
- Alcohol: Drinking alcohol, especially when talking about a large amount of it in a short time, increases the risk of fibrillation.
- Family history of the disease.
Complications of Atrial fibrillation
- Stroke: Rapid and irregular contractions in the ears can cause a vortex pumping of blood into the atria, creating a fertile environment for blood clots to develop. These clots can also come out of the heart and block blood vessels in the brain if your atrial fibrillation accompanied by high blood pressure, myocardial insufficiency, an increased risk of a heart attack, a previous case of a stroke, and diabetes. The use of anticoagulant drugs reduces the risk of developing these complications.
- Myocardial insufficiency: An uncontrolled fibrillation can lead to myocardial weakness and consequently a failure to function – meaning the heart is unable to supply the body with the necessary blood.
Diagnosis of Atrial fibrillation
The injury is diagnosed by an electrocardiogram (E.C.G) or Holter, as well as by ultrasound cardiac ultrasound, and even by simple tests, such as blood test or chest radiography. All of these tests can help diagnose the cause of symptoms or atrial fibrillation.
Treatment of Atrial fibrillation
When the cause of fibrillation is identified and can treat, this is the best situation, and treatment is limited to trying to prevent fibrillation. The purpose of the fibrillation is usually not known, or the change that has occurred cannot be repaired or treated. There are then two central treatment strategies. The type of treatment is chosen based on the length of the infection, the severity of the symptoms, the general patient status and other factors.
- Rhythm control: In this strategy, the heart is restored to its regular activity by “reverse”. The opposite can be done by anti-pulse medications or by electric charges, which stop the heart from working for several milliseconds. This process is useful if we guarantee that after tachycardia returns, the defibrillator will no longer occur. In some cases, drugs from the antidepressant family are used to prevent the recurrence of fibrillation.
- Rate control: In some cases, tachycardia cannot restore to normal. The goal of treatment is to keep the heart rate between 60 and 100 beats per minute, similar to a healthy human being. In the first stage, some drugs such as digoxin, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers are attempted to slow the heart rate. If the drugs do not reduce the number of heartbeats, then a surgical resection (ablation) is performed to separate the fibres carrying electrical charges from the atria to the ventricles. In this case, although the atria contract at a high frequency, the ventricles maintain a regular rate.
Other procedures, such as the eradication of hot centres or the “vestibule” (Maze) method, are also available. Either way, there is a need to combine treatment with anticoagulant medications to prevent a seizure. In the rhythm control strategy, use is limited to the period of the “reverse” procedure, whereas when talking about the plan of keeping pace, anticoagulants used permanently.