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Sickle Cell Anemia disease, find out All about Sickle Cell Anemia, causes and factors of Sickle Cell Anemia disease, symptoms & diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia.
About Sickle Cell Anemia disease
Sickle cell anaemia is a genetic disease that results from a change in haemoglobin, the main protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen and transports it from the lungs to the body’s tissues. Sickle Cell Anemia disease is one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system.
Effect of sickle cell anaemia on haemoglobin, Hemoglobin consists of protein chains of two types, namely:
- Two alpha strings.
- Two other “beta” series.
Haemoglobin in sickle-cell anaemia patients in amino acid, in beta chains, is different from normal haemoglobin in humans without sickle cell anaemia. This difference results in:
- Protein deposited in blood cells in patients with low oxygen concentration.
- Then the cell wall was damaged, and the pellet building changed.
What happens in sickle cell disease?
Typically, the blood cell is flexible and resembles a small disk pressed from both sides, such as a hollow cylinder in the centre on both sides, while in sickle cell disease, the blood cell loses its elasticity and takes a sickle shape. The average age of diseased cells is short. They live no more than one week, which is a very short period compared to the normal age of normal cells, which live about 120 days, and the spleen gets rid of these abnormal cells. In response to anaemia, the production of erythrocytes increases in the body, but this intense productivity is not enough to compensate for the lack of red blood cells, showing patients with moderate to severe anaemia.
This intense pressure on the work of the spleen causes damage to its functioning as an organ that protects the body from infections and patients become more susceptible to disease. The low elasticity of sickle-cell pellets (in the case of anaemia) leads to clogs in the capillaries and hinder the supply of body tissues with blood, and these blockages cause severe pain, and in severe cases may cause infarction, leading to the loss of the affected organs ability to perform their functions, when the occurrence of such seizures, patients need medical treatment at frequent intervals. Side problems associated with anaemia, such as fatigue and developmental and developmental delays, may also occur.
Sickle cell anaemia and heredity
Sickle cell anaemia is a hereditary, recurrent disease caused by the transmission of genetic defects from both parents. Parents, who have sickle cell anaemia (have disease genes but do not have it), have a reasonable couple of beta-globin gene, while the other couple carries sickle cell mutation in sickle cell carriers. They do not suffer from sickle cell anaemia, but they produce haemoglobin, along with healthy haemoglobin.
When is sickle cell anaemia useful?
Carrying out sickle cell anaemia (carrying disease genes, not disease) is gaining strength and resistance to malaria and the ability to survive in areas where the epidemic is prevailing. Therefore, the condition is prevalent in the tropics, mainly in Africa, and among people of African descent living in other countries.
Diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia
Carriers of sickle cell anaemia can be diagnosed by a laboratory test (in vitro) that identifies sickle cell haemoglobin. The determination of sickle cell carriers is critical, especially in families who may also be carrying the beta-thalassemia gene. Both patients are together. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tests enable the fetus to be diagnosed in early pregnancy (prenatal diagnosis), showing whether the fetus is at risk of developing this severe disease.
Treatment of sickle cell anaemia
- The basis in the treatment of sickle cell anaemia is to provide the necessary support to the patient.
- Infusion (administration of liquid or solution, therapeutically, intravenously – Infusion) or antibiotics (Antibiotics) as needed.
- In severe cases, treatment involves the replacement of erythrocytes: half of the number of erythrocytes in the patient’s body is gradually replaced, intact erythrocytes, from blood meals.
- There is a possible preventive treatment with a toxic drug (Cytotoxic), which contributes to improving the overall clinical signs, interfering with many organs in the body, but this treatment is not suitable for all patients, but only for some of them.
- What are the symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia disease?
- How is the prevention of Sickle Cell Anemia disease?
- What are the causes and factors of Sickle Cell Anemia?
- What are the complications of Sickle Cell Anemia?
- How is the diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia disease?
- What is the treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia diseases?
- Alternative treatments of Sickle Cell Anemia diseases: